Por dos matas de Marihuana

alberto

Alberto Ortega Jirón

Defensor Regional de O’Higgins

 
Probablemente usted lea corrientemente que algunos ciudadanos son detenidos por tener matas de marihuana en sus hogares.
La lógica es sencilla, si la cantidad de matas o plantas es considerable: 100, 150 o una hectárea, es indudable que dicha plantación tiene fines comerciales y estamos en presencia de tráfico o micro tráfico, delito que tiene penas elevadas en nuestro sistema.
Pero, si la cantidad es pequeña 2, 10 o 20 plantas, es posible que estos vegetales tengan un fin diverso, “su consumo personal exclusivo y próximo en el tiempo”.
En Chile el consumo de marihuana (personal) y la tenencia de marihuana (para ese consumo próximo) es legal o dicho de otra manera, no está penado.
Pero ojo – se trata de un consumo privado – de modo que trasladar esa droga (portarla) en lugares públicos y fumarla en tales espacios abiertos es una falta que se castiga con multa de hasta 10 UTM.
El punto es, si para poder consumir esa marihuana decido sembrar mis propias plantas ¿Puedo hacerlo? La Corte Suprema plantea que si alguien tiene en su hogar 15 plantas de marihuana y no existen indicios de que tal ciudadano venda, trafique, o realice alarde de comercializar o regalar el producto de tales plantas, está en su derecho y por lo mismo es un consumidor al que no se debe perseguir.
De hecho, con fecha 04 de abril de 2016 la Segunda Sala de la Corte Suprema estableció que un ciudadano de la comuna de Rancagua que tenía 15 plantas y 2,5 kilogramos de marihuana, fue condenado erróneamente y dictó una nueva sentencia declarando que en su calidad de consumidor no debió siquiera comparecer ante la justicia.
Hace una semana atrás, otro fallo de la Corte Suprema estableció que las policías no deben autónomamente (es decir, sin permiso de un fiscal) allanar, detener e incautar marihuana en los hogares de consumidores.
Por lo mismo, se hace perentorio que los fiscales, al momento de entregar una orden de detención de personas que tengan un numero razonable de plantas (15), tengan a su vez indicios, pruebas y antecedentes de que dicho vecino vende o participa en alguna organización de tráfico de drogas. Si dicha prueba no existe, la detención e incautación de tales plantas o marihuana a granel que almacene un ciudadano, es ilegal.
Tampoco bastará para fundar tales pruebas de venta los llamados anónimos a las policías, ya que los tribunales han establecido que tales indicios pueden ser fácilmente falseados o inventados – podrían así servir para detener a un ciudadano consumidor porque “alguien” aseguró que vendía y de ese “alguien” nadie sabe ni siquiera de su real existencia.
En síntesis, los tribunales superiores de justicia han establecido que:
a) Los chilenos pueden tener legalmente plantas de marihuana en su casa si éstas por su cantidad y características están destinadas a su consumo personal exclusivo y próximo en el tiempo.
b) Las policías están vedadas de detener a personas e incautarles sus plantas vivas y droga almacenada en sus hogares sin previa autorización de un fiscal.
c) Un fiscal deberá acopiar prueba de tráfico o micro trafico previo a entregar órdenes de detención en casos tales como el relatado en el fallo del cuatro de abril de la Corte Suprema.
d) Una cantidad de plantas desmesurada (no sabemos bien cuánto) 50 o 100 plantas en un indicio de que esa droga no está destinada a su consumo dentro de un año y por lo mismo es un delito grave previsto en la ley 20.000.-
Por tales consideraciones es que nos molesta la situación anómala que se produce en la Región de O’Higgins, cuando vemos en los diarios locales que personas sin antecedentes penales son detenidas y pasadas a un Tribunal de Garantía por tener dos o cuatro plantas en sus hogares. Hace un mes atrás un joven de 17 años fue detenido luego que inocentemente le abriera la puerta a unos policías, los dejara ingresar a su casa y estos advirtieron dos plantas de cannabis.
Por cierto, no se trata de promocionar absolutamente nada, menos el consumo de drogas. Pero el punto es que existe un descriterio gigante en el modo como se trata el tema de la marihuana versus el consumo alcohol (muchísimo más dañino).
Solo basta poner como ejemplo que en Rancagua existe un bar que promociona con grandes carteles el consumo de cervezas y tragos a bajo precio a menos de treinta metros de la puerta del Liceo Oscar Castro y a nadie, absolutamente a nadie, parece afectarle y, sin embargo, un par de plantas en una casa es el pasaje ineludible para pasar una larga noche detenido en un cuartel.

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