Formación Ciudadana


El plan de Formación Ciudadana –que crea la recientemente promulgada Ley 20.911 – podría suponer un importante cambio sin precedentes en el currículo chileno. Es cierto que hasta su derogación en los 90s existió una asignatura de Educación Cívica y que desde entonces la Formación Ciudadana ha formado parte del currículo de forma transversal. Pero la novedad de la nueva normativa no está sólo en la creación de un nuevo ramo obligatorio de Formación Ciudadana en 3º y 4º Medio, sino que en la obligación de los centros educativos de generar un plan de acción que sirva para alcanzar los objetivos de la Ley.
Esta normativa ofrece algunas ideas de por dónde puede ir este plan, como la realización de talleres y actividades o la apertura del establecimiento a la comunidad. Ejemplo de que el Gobierno ha hecho los deberes y se apropia de algunas de las recomendaciones de la literatura internacional sobre formación ciudadana.
Sin embargo, cada sostenedor podrá fijar libremente los contenidos del plan, lo que puede dar amplia cabida al dicho “hecha la ley, hecha la trampa”. Porque bien es sabida la amplia desigualdad de recursos y oportunidades que existe entre centros educativos en Chile, además de miradas varias y contrapuestas a la idea de ciudadanía.
Fundamentales van a ser los pasos que se den a partir de ahora, porque una ley de estas características es mucho más compleja en su aplicación que una tradicional reforma que suma o resta ramos. Requiere de un esfuerzo extra por parte de los centros educativos, requiere planificación, formación y orientación del profesorado, requiere recursos y, sobre todo, un seguimiento que, más que fiscalizar, apoye la implementación. Bienvenida sea la innovación, pero todo profesor sabe que innovar supone trabajar duro por el cambio educativo. ¿Estarán los centros educativos motivados, preparados y dispuestos para afrontar el reto?



Dr. Rosendo Martínez
Núcleo de Investigación en Educación
Universidad Andrés Bello


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