EDITORIAL: Temporal y comunicación de episodios críticos

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Fue un fin de semana de emergencia, no cabe la menor duda. También es cierto que por esencia la emergencia es impredecible, se responde al minuto. Pero no por ello no se puede planificar una respuesta. Así lo saben los Bomberos, Carabineros y otros tantos organismos acostumbrados a dar una rápida respuesta ante la comunidad, existen protocolos de trabajo, así como una escalada y planificada adición de medios si así la emergencia lo amerita.

 

En el ámbito de la comunicación sucede lo mismo, es imposible conocer con anticipación que sucederá mañana, pero se pueden tener de antemano planificados protocolos de respuesta ante situaciones críticas. Esto último, al parecer no sucedió durante la emergencia de este fin de semana.
La parte previa al periodo crítico funciono relativamente bien, la autoridad y los medios de comunicación dieron cuenta de que ocurriría un fenómeno meteorológico complejo, el viernes se mantuvo un constante flujo de información sobre los monitoreos del cauce del río Tinguiririca y de las primeras pequeñas urgencias en Cachapoal, pero el sábado tras las fuertes lluvias de la noche, todo falló. En primer lugar sin previo aviso muchos despertamos o con el agua turbia o simplemente sin agua. Esto en el sector oriente de Rancagua, Machalí o la población Rancagua Sur.
Al mismo tiempo que ESSBIO insistía que se trataba de problemas puntuales las redes sociales se llenaban de testimonios que daban cuenta de un problema más extenso, recién a las 15:30 en una entrevista dada a radio Bienvenida la empresa reconocía la gravedad del problema y anunciaba para las 16 horas un extenso corte, poco tiempo hubo para que la gente se prepara o para que las autoridades tomasen medidas. Recién a las 17:32 horas una comunicación pública formal de la sanitaria daba cuenta de la situación, al mismo tiempo que la gente reclamaba que en los lugares informados por redes sociales como puntos de entrega de agua no estaban habilitados. Recién a las 18:30 estuvieron completamente montados, compartimos las críticas vertidas en estas mismas páginas por el alcalde Eduardo Soto por esta situación.
Al mismo tiempo solo silencio había en cuanto a comunicación desde la autoridad de gobierno sobre la emergencia que se vivía. Al parecer que la intendenta (S) estuviese junto a la presidenta en Lolol en la puesta de la primera piedra del museo del vino, y con ella suponemos su equipo de comunicaciones, es parte del porque de la escases de información oficial durante la mañana y tarde del sábado. Recién con la llegada del seremi de Gobierno a eso de las 17 horas al COE (Comité Operativo de Emergencia) comenzamos a tener algo de información oficial.
El domingo la situación pareció mejorar un poco, durante el día más regularmente fluyó la información tanto gubernamental como desde las empresas de servicio. Incluso ENAP reconoció sin que se le preguntara de un posible derrame de petróleo.
Pero en la noche vino lo peor, nadie tomaba la decisión de suspender las clases. Por una parte desde el COE la seremi del ramo le entregaba la responsabilidad a los alcaldes, por otra parte Eduardo Soto insistía en que era la autoridad regional quien debía tomar la determinación. Igualmente los alcaldes de Mostazal, Machalí, Doñihue, Graneros y Codegua suspendieron en la noche las clases, pero esa decisión afectaba solo a los colegios municipales, dejando en la incertidumbre a las instituciones subvencionadas y las particulares que una a una debieron tomar la determinación y no siempre con el mismo criterio. Los falsos positivos popularon con fuerza en las redes sumiendo en la incertidumbre a los apoderados que masivamente reclamaban en twitter contra la determinación de la seremi, al mismo tiempo que un fuerte diluvio caía.
Ya de madrugada se gesta el peor escenario, cambiar lo informado en la noche sin tiempo de reacción. Primero el alcalde de Rancagua a eso de las 4 de la mañana informa de la suspensión de clases en los colegios municipales de la comuna, cancelación que la seremi a eso de las 7 de la mañana extendió a todo tipo de establecimiento en las comunas antes mencionada. A esa hora ya había escolares en tránsito a sus colegios y poco margen tuvieron los padres para buscar con quien dejar a sus hijos que imprevistamente se vieron sin colegio o sin jardín infantil. Las recriminaciones volvieron a tomarse las redes.
La comunicación no se improvisa, se planifica. Entendemos que la incómoda posición que tiene Teresa Núñez como autoridad suplente no le ha permitido conformar su propio equipo, pero al parecer en nuestras autoridades no está la conciencia de la necesidad de mantener informada a la población durante un periodo de crisis.
Antes de terminar un par de recomendaciones para nuestra autoridades sacadas de libros de texto sobre gestión de episodios comunicacionales críticos. En primer lugar tener claridad sobre los canales de comunicación disponibles con la comunidad, que medios tienen la capacidad de salir en vivo y/o informar en tiempo real y la forma de proveerlos de información, así como su alcance, cobertura y real capacidad de llegar a la población. Poco tal vez sirve entregar una información por un canal nacional que solo le dará escasos segundos a la misma, en estos casos fundamental resultan los medios locales considerando a los mal llamados medios nacionales como medios locales de Santiago –pero con alcance nacional. También se debe tener claridad de redes sociales propias y gestionarlas como una manera no solo de entregar información sino también recibirla, además de una planificación precisa de los profesionales que estarán a cargo de entregar un flujo constante de información, al mismo tiempo que se planifica un sistema de turnos para que todos puedan tener un mínimo descanso y no existan momentos sin comunicación efectiva.
Por nuestra parte nuestro twitter @elrancaguino se convirtió en una gran herramienta para ir entregando información sobre la situación que se vivía. Solo para demostrar la necesidad de la misma, antes de la emergencia teníamos 24.800 seguidores y al cierre de la presente edición eran 25.753 personas quienes seguían la cuenta de este medio. Al mismo tiempo no cabe sino reconocer la gran gestión que en redes sociales tiene el alcalde de Rancagua Eduardo Soto ( @alcaldesoto) quien a través de la red del pajarito mantuvo un importante flujo de información al mismo tiempo que recibía denuncias de la comunidad sobre diversos problemas que se presentaron.

 
Luis Fernando González
Sub Director

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