Sobre Patricio Aylwin

La figura de Patricio Aylwin, junto con Eduardo Frei Montalva, Raúl Silva Henríquez, Salvador Allende y Augusto Pinochet, fue decisiva para el curso de nuestra historia actual.
Durante el siglo XX, Chile transitó por dos etapas sucesivas desde la “consolidación democrática” a la “profundización democrática”. La primera desde la Constitución de 1925 hasta el ejercicio del voto femenino en las elecciones presidenciales en 1952 y la segunda, desde entonces hasta el quiebre institucional de 1973.
En ese período, la distribución de la riqueza, la integración social y la plena participación de la población en las decisiones de los destinos de la sociedad se transformaron en los objetivos políticos de las corrientes de cambio, ya progresistas o revolucionarias. Entre ellas estaban el socialcristianismo, el socialismo (en la versión del Partido Comunista o el Partido Socialista) y las visiones laico progresistas representadas por el mundo radical. Estas corrientes doctrinarias, y/o ideológicas, se expresaron a través de partidos políticos que iniciaron una creciente disputa entre la vía capitalista y la vía socialista de desarrollo, en un periodo de proyectos antagónicos excluyentes.
En ese contexto, Patricio Aylwin, formado en la Acción Católica y en la educación pública –Liceo de Hombres de San Bernardo y la Escuela de Derecho de la Universidad de Chile– fue parte de una generación austera, proba y con conciencia de servicio público que quiso mejorar las condiciones de vida e integración de las grandes mayorías. Y lo hizo poniendo en práctica el pensamiento socialcristiano de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia Católica, de la opción preferencial por los pobres, visión subrayada en el pensamiento de filósofos social-cristianos como Jacques Maritain, Emmanuel Mounier y Giorgio La Pira.
Aylwin y su generación de falangistas, luego fundadores de la Democracia Cristiana, buscaban acentuar los principios de los filósofos que pretendía hacer carne el Evangelio y, siguiendo lo aprendido del padre Alberto Hurtado en la Acción Católica, sostener la máxima que “antes que la caridad está la justicia”.
El ex Presidente fue un austero y comprometido socialcristiano, partidario de los cambios en favor de la integración social y una redistribución más justa de la riqueza, encontró en la opción cristiana el acento y metodología apropiada para dichas transformaciones. Desarrolló –en su condición de católico– una perspectiva trascendente del mundo, compartiendo una mirada crítica del materialismo socialista, transformándose en un detractor de dichas ideas.
Por tanto, su opción y protagonismo público, contrario al socialismo que se estaba instaurando en el gobierno de Salvador Allende, lo llevaron a antagonizar –desde una mirada con acento social pro capitalista– con las opciones socialistas –moderadas o radicales– por considerarlas visiones limitadas de la condición humana y un franco peligro para la democracia.
Aylwin fue un “hombre de derecho”, convencido de las bondades de la democracia liberal representativa, respetuoso de la Constitución y las leyes, un respetuoso observante del principio de autoridad democrática, un político hábil y de convicciones, alejado de los estereotipos cosmopolitas de Eduardo Frei o Salvador Allende. Contradijo, confrontó y antagonizó con las opciones socialistas de su época de manera frontal, contribuyendo, junto con toda su generación al descalabro de la democracia en Chile, misma que ayudó a recuperar, transformándose en el líder respetado y en el estadista que hoy despedimos.

 

 

Aldo Casali
Historiador
Universidad Andrés Bello

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