Simce 2015: Brecha socioeconómica entre estudiantes de la región supera ampliamente la media nacional

8 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 2006
Escolares de Liceo 1 Javiera Carrera rinden prueba SIMCE.

FOTO CHRISTIAN IGLESIAS  Escolares rinden prueba SIMCE Escolares rinden prueba SIMCE

La cifra más preocupante fue en el Simce Matemática de 4° Básico, donde la región llegó a una diferencia de 81 puntos entre los resultados de alumnos de estratos altos respecto a aquellos de condición vulnerable. Según los expertos, remontar este atraso en la educación de la población de escasos recursos puede llegar a tardar hasta 40 años.

 

 

IRENE PADILLA

 

 

Tras la presentación de los resultados de las pruebas Simce 2°, 4° y 6° Básico entregado esta semana por la Agencia de Calidad de la Educación, viene un segundo desglose que abarca los diversos factores que influyen de una u otra forma en los resultados de los menores.
Entre estos ítemes, esta precisamente la condición socioeconómica de los niños y niñas que rinden el Simce cada año. Las diferencias en los resultados entre alumnos de la educación municipal y subvencionada, respecto de aquellos que se forman en la educación pagada son cada año más notorios, un atraso preocupante que el Ministerio de Educación ha registrado calculando la diferencia de puntaje entre los niños provenientes de familias vulnerables y aquellos que pertenecen a los sectores más acomodados del pais.
En este sentido a nivel nacional, la Agencia de Calidad de la Educación destacó que en los últimos 10 años, algunas de las pruebas han mostrado una baja en la brecha social , por ejemplo, en el test de Matemática, donde según el Gobierno, si se compara el puntaje promedio en 4º y 6º básico entre los establecimientos de de grupos socioeconomicos (GSE) bajo y alto” encontramos diferencias de 66 y 79 puntos, respectivamente. Sin embargo, al mirar la última década, en 4º básico, existe una clara disminución de la brecha (en 11 puntos) entre los GSE alto y bajo (desde 77 en 2005 a 66 puntos en 2015)”.
Y en el caso de Comprensión de Lectura, las diferencias de resultados entre establecimientos son menores que en Matemática, sostiene la Agencia de Calidad de la Educación, esto porque en 2º básico, la diferencia entre los resultados de establecimientos de estratos alto y bajo “es de 53 puntos, en 4° básico de 54 y en 6º básico es de 57 puntos. Al analizar nuevamente los resultados de la última década en 4º básico, podemos ver que la brecha disminuyó 15 puntos (de 69 pasa a 54 puntos)”.
Ahora , en cuanto a los resultados de la Región de O’Higgins los datos sí son preocupantes. En los seis exámenes que se tomaron en octubre de 2015, nuestros niños superaron la media nacional en cuanto a diferencias de puntaje por su situación socioeconómica, es decir, la brecha social en O’Higgins es aun más amplia que la que vive el resto del país.
Por ejemplo, en el caso de la prueba de Compresión de Lectura , donde a nivel nacional la diferencia de resultados es menos notoria, en O’Higgins en 2° Básico, los niños marcaron 60 puntos de diferencia entre aquellos de escuelas más pobres respecto a los menores de sectores acomodados, 8 puntos más que la diferencia a nivel país. Algo similar sucedió en 4° Básico donde el margen entre ambos grupos sociales llegó a 63 puntos, 9 puntos más que el promedio nacional.

En cuanto al Simce Matemática, los resultados también son magros. En 6° Básico, O’Higgins tuvo 86 puntos de diferencia entre sus niños más pobres y aquellos de sectores socioeconómicos altos, diferencia que a nivel nacional baja a 79 puntos.
Pero el dato más llamativo se registró en la prueba Matemática de 4° Básico, donde nuestra región marcó una diferencia de 81 puntos en los resultados de sus alumnos por grupo socioeconómico; 15 puntos por sobre la brecha social del país, que en ese test llego a 66 puntos.

Para la Agencia de Calidad de la Educación, la brecha social en la prueba Simce sigue siendo un tema prioritario, el cual aseguran, se intenta combatir, así lo sostiene su Secretario Ejecutivo, Carlos Henríquez: “Esta disminución en la brecha entre los grupos socioeconómicos extremos se debe a que los grupos más desaventajados han tendido a mejorar significativamente sus resultados, a la vez que los grupos medio alto y alto se han mantenido estables en sus resultados. Esto implica que la tendencia al alza de los puntajes Simce que hemos observado durante la década, ha generado también un aumento en la equidad de los puntajes. Los puntajes han crecido y son más equitativos”, dijo Henríquez.

 

 

40 AÑOS PARA SUPERAR LAS DIFERENCIAS DE CLASES

Quienes no ven de manera muy optimista las diferencias entre la educación de sectores acomodados, y grupos pobres de la población, es la Fundación Educación 2020, quienes afirmaron tras conocer los resultados de Simce, que si esta situación se mantiene , serán generaciones completas las afectadas. Mirentxu Anaya, presidenta Ejecutiva de Educación 2020 indicó que a nivel nacional “ si bien el puntaje Simce ha subido en la última década, a ese ritmo y para que realmente alcancemos la meta de que los niños de contextos más empobrecidos tengan el promedio de los niños con mayores recursos, tendrían que pasar 40 años. Chile no puede esperar tanto”.
Para la Fundación es un hecho que “el origen social” de nuestros niños, determina los resultados en sus pruebas de medición educacional, lo que en consecuencia afecta a gran parte de la población escolar “la situación es peor cuando sabemos que la gran mayoría de los niños, niñas y jóvenes del país se forman en los colegios con los aprendizajes más deficientes del sistema : más del 60% de los establecimientos están clasificados en los sectores socioeconómicos bajo y medio-bajo”, afirmó el organismo.
En ese sentido Educación 2020 subrayó que aplicando más pruebas de medición no se soluciona la crisis, sino que los cambios deben nacer en las propias aulas “para mejorar los aprendizajes hay que invertir en innovación pedagógica : transformar la sala de clases, cambiar qué se aprende , cómo se aprende, con quienes y con qué. La innovación pedagógica no es un lujo, ni una reforma complementaria, es un imperativo ético”, sentencio Fundación Educación 2020.

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