“Más que princesas” : los talleres pro igualdad de género que causan furor en las niñas de la región

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¿Por qué las mujeres deben esperar la llegada de un príncipe azul? ¿Tener el cuerpo de Barbie? o se les prohíbe jugar con herramientas. Mitos que nacieron en la infancia, avalados por una cultura que promueve encasillar a las niñas en el rol de princesas, y a los niños en el de recios príncipes azules, es lo que ponen en análisis estos talleres. Los padres, por su parte, han aplaudido como han rechazado con fuerza la participación de sus hijas en ellos.

 

 

 
A que niña no le gustan las princesas. Desde la Cenicienta hasta las Monster High, todas las pequeñas del país, y del mundo, sueñan con los cuentos de hadas, los largos trajes, las perfectas figuras de sus ídolas, y el encuentro icónico con un príncipe azul que las rescate de su pasado doloroso.
Pero quien se ha preguntado cuanto influyen estas historias en la formación de las menores, o sobre cómo es que se conciben las niñas enfrentadas a una cultura donde son invadidas por estereotipos que sobrevaloran características como la belleza corporal, pero que dejan de lado otros como la inteligencia, o la valoración de sus capacidades.
Fue así como una especial iniciativa nació en la Oficina de Protección de Derechos de la Infancia que en conjunto manejan Sename y la comuna de Iquique, donde el año pasado sus encargados pusieron en marcha un plan piloto, que buscó a través de la realización de una serie de talleres, empoderar los valores femeninos a partir del cuestionamiento de la figura de la mujer en los cuentos de hadas. En ese entonces fueron conocidos como talleres de “desprincesamiento”, y causaron un revuelo no menor en los colegios iquiqueños ya que no sólo las niñas en edad escolar, sino que también sus madres, comenzaron a analizar un poco más allá temas como los estereotipos en los juegos, el concepto de belleza corporal, el amor romántico y propio y el autocuidado y la autodefensa.
Este año, el Servicio Nacional de Menores este año, con el beneplácito de la Presidenta Michelle Bachelet decidió implementar en todas las OPD del país los talleres “Más que princesas”, los que se han llevado a cabo en al menos una decena de comunas de la Región de O’Higgins.
La directora regional del Servicio Nacional de Menores de la región, Jessika Espina, explicó cuál es el objetivo de la realización del taller : “este taller tiene como finalidad sociabilizar con las niñas y adolescentes la temática que involucra la igualdad de género, uno de los ejes fundamentales del gobierno, instalado a través de una mesa entre las instituciones públicas. La idea es que las niñas comprendan que los estereotipos establecidos no son una referencia válida y que no tienen limitaciones en el desarrollo de sus capacidades y habilidades”.
Además la directiva destacó que “esto también deber ser comprendido por los niños, los papás y mamás puesto que la idea es formar a personas que el día de mañana terminen con la discriminación y formen parte de una mejor sociedad”.

 

EXPERIENCIAS QUE CAUSAN FUROR

En Colchagua , en la comuna de Santa Cruz la OPD “Sembrando Derechos” llevó el taller “Más que princesas” a un grupo de niñas de entre 5° y 8° básico de esa comuna. Loreto Prado, encargada de la oficina explica : “ la modalidad del taller es que se trabaja con un máximo de 10 a 12 niñitas, en cuatro sesiones las que se dividieron por temáticas. En una se trabajaron los estereotipos de género en los juegos, en otra los estereotipos de belleza, los mitos del amor romántico y también abordamos lo que significa ser niña. Uno de los talleres se refiere a los mitos relacionados con ser mujer, y uno de estos es aquel que dice que para ser feliz necesitas un príncipe azul, o que para que tú te desarrolles como mujer tienes que estar casada con hijos, sin considerar la individualidad de esa niña, proponiendo que en caso que no encuentre un amor de pareja adecuado esa niña no será feliz en su vida”.
Prado enfatiza como estos talleres también cambian la mirada respecto a otros temas. “Hay un choque cultural con respecto a lo que ellas han venido escuchando y lo que tú les planteas, por ejemplo, cuando les hablas de los juguetes y les dices que ellas también pueden jugar con camiones, o con herramientas o un skate, si bien a ellas les cuesta reconocerse con esos juguetes , cuando les explicas que también son adecuados para niñas lo toman de una manera más natural. También se trabajan los estereotipos de belleza de las princesas, en ese sentido son bastante concretos los talleres, la idea es que ellas primero se acepten como son, porque los estereotipos de belleza están dados por la publicidad y los medios de comunicación, por tanto la aceptación es lo más importante respecto a cómo uno se percibe a si mismo y hacerlas comprender que las diferencias son necesarias para que se desarrolle la sociedad. No necesitamos ser todas delgadas, altas, y regias”, subraya Prado.
Cinthya Paredes, encargada de la Dirección de Desarrollo Comunitario santacruzana, y quien asistió como madre de tres hijas a estos talleres explica que quedó fascinada con la propuesta porque “existe una cultura bastante machista que ha predominado en la propuesta cinematográfica infantil, la cual ha buscado enaltecer en la imagen de las tradicionales princesas criterios como la belleza por sobre la intelectualidad o, incluso, vinculando el éxito femenino a estos cánones perfectos”. La profesional agrega que incluso propuso en una reunión de apoderados del colegio este taller: “les conté a las mamás de que se trataba, les dije ‘ustedes han pensado por ejemplo ¿por qué las mujeres no somos destacadas en los libros de historia? Porque las chilenas no sabemos nada de otras chilenas que han cambiado la historia como Elena Caffarena, que logró el voto femenino o Eloisa Diaz, que fue la primera mujer que ingresó a estudiar medicina, solo nos hablan de lo que hicieron los hombres, y me encontraron la razón. A mi hija mayor le conté acerca de ellas y ahora esta fascinada con su historias y quiere saber más, entonces te das cuenta que falta mucho trabajo cultural en cuanto a la igualdad de género”.
Los talleres en Santa Cruz tuvieron tal nivel de éxito que en los próximos días se realizará nuevamente una jornada, donde esta vez irán las niñas con sus madres.

 
TALLERES QUE GENERAN PERSPICACIAS

Las reacciones al taller “Más que Princesas” a lo largo del país y en la región han sido variadas y bien lo saben las encargadas de las 10 oficinas OPD de O’Higgins.
Michelle Rodriguez es la encargada de la OPD “Cordillera Codegua” la que realiza talleres tanto en esa comuna como en Machalí, y fue precisamente en esta última donde se realizó este taller pro igualdad de género para el cual las expertas convocaron a 15 niñas de las cuales 12 consiguieron el permiso de sus padres para participar. “Nosotros supimos que en otras comunas estos talleres habían generado confusión, así que les mandamos una carta a los padres contándoles de que se trataba. Hubo padres que consideraron que eran talleres de feminismo, o que si mandaban a las niñas les cambiaríamos las reglas que habían en la casa, incluso hubo una mamá que nos preguntó si encontrábamos a su hija ‘amachada’ porque la invitábamos a participar, y esto creo fue porque no entendieron bien los objetivos de las sesiones”. Pero no todo fue malo en Machalí, ya que según la especialista la reacción de las niñas y en especial de un apoderado fue reconfortante “para las niñas fue muy positivo , conversamos temáticas sobre romper con esta idea de las princesas y ellas lo entendieron de inmediato, y en especial tuvimos una reacción positiva por parte del padre de una niña que es muy unida a él y ella nos comentaba que le contó a su papá de que trataban los talleres y él la apoyó y le reforzaba las ideas , porque es un convencido de que ella debe estudiar, de que debe buscar sus herramientas en la vida e incluso le comentó que si ella se preparaba y tenía una carrera no sería dependiente de un hombre que la pudiese maltratar”.
En este marco el próximo 12 de mayo en Codegua, esta oficina realiza una segunda jornada.

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